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Disease Profile

Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm

Summary

Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases are a group of diseases of the blood and bone marrow in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. These disease have features of both myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative disorders. In myelodysplastic diseases, the blood stem cells do not mature into healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets and as a result, there are fewer of these healthy cells. In myeloproliferative diseases, a greater than normal number of blood stem cells develop into one or more types of blood cells and the total number of blood cells slowly increases. The 3 main types of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases include chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML); juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML); and atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML). When a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease does not match any of these types, it is called myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-UC). Symptoms of CMML and JMML may include fever, feeling tired and weight loss. Symptoms of aCML may include easy bruising or bleeding and feeling tired or weak. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases may progress to acute leukemia. There are different types of treatment for individuals with one of these diseases, which may include chemotherapy, another drug therapy, stem cell transplant and/or supportive care.[1]

Cause

In most cases, the cause of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease is unknown, and there is limited information regarding potential causes. No specific genetic defects have been identified for any of the diseases. The specific cause of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is unknown, but exposure to occupational and environmental carcinogens (agents that can cause cancer), ionizing radiation, and cytotoxic agents (agents that are toxic to cells) have been associated in some cases. The cause of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is not known; however, children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at increased risk for developing JMML, and up to 14% of cases of JMML occur in children with NF1. Atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML) has been associated with cytogenetic (chromosomal) abnormalities in as many as 80% of individuals with the disease; however, no cytogenetic abnormality is specific. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/ MPN-UC) (also known as mixed myeloproliferative/ myelodysplastic syndrome) also has no known cause.[1]

Treatment

FDA-Approved Treatments

The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.

  • Imatinib mesylate(Brand name: Gleevec®) Manufactured by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp.
    FDA-approved indication: Treatment of adult patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases (MDS/MPD) associated with PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor)
    National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • The National Cancer Institute provides the most current information on cancer for patients, health professionals, and the general public.

        In-Depth Information

        • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          References

          1. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute. July 1, 2011; https://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/mds-mpd/Patient/page1. Accessed 7/7/2011.

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