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Disease Profile

Pendred syndrome

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

1-9 / 100 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset






Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

PDS; Deafness with goiter; Goiter-deafness syndrome;


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases; Endocrine Diseases


Pendred syndrome is a condition usually characterized by sensorineural hearing loss in both ears (bilateral) and euthyroid goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland with normal thyroid gland function). The amount of hearing loss varies among affected people. In many cases, significant hearing loss is present at birth. In other cases, hearing loss does not develop until later in infancy or childhood. Some people have problems with balance caused by dysfunction of the part of the inner ear that helps with balance and orientation (the vestibular system). Pendred syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Mutations in 3 genes are currently known to cause the condition (SLC26A4, FOXI1, and KCNJ10) and are found in about half of affected people. Other genes responsible for the condition have not yet been identified.[1][2][3]


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Enlarged vestibular aqueduct
Hypoplasia of the cochlea
Sensorineural hearing impairment
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Enlarged thyroid gland in neck
Underactive thyroid
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Elevated blood parathyroid hormone level
Intellectual disability
Mental deficiency
Mental retardation
Mental retardation, nonspecific

[ more ]

Neurological speech impairment
Speech disorder
Speech impairment
Speech impediment

[ more ]

Respiratory insufficiency
Respiratory impairment
Thyroid carcinoma
Tracheal stenosis
Narrowing of windpipe
Dizzy spell
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis
Laboratory abnormality
Metabolism abnormality

[ more ]

Autosomal recessive inheritance
Cochlear malformation
Compensated hypothyroidism
Congenital sensorineural hearing impairment
Vestibular dysfunction


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

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    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

      In-Depth Information

      • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Pendred syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


        1. Fatemeh Alasti, Guy Van Camp, and Richard JH Smith. Pendred Syndrome/DFNB4. GeneReviews. May 29, 2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1467/. Accessed 11/24/2014.
        2. Pendred syndrome. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). 2008; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/pendred-syndrome.
        3. Richard Smith. Pendred syndrome. Orphanet. July, 2013; https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=en&Expert=705. Accessed 11/24/2014.

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